The billionaire philanthropist says raising and selling the birds can be efficient to tackle extreme poverty and to this end, he has promised to donate 100,000 chickens.
Based on his theory, farmer breeding five hens could earn more than $1,000 a year about $300 more than the poverty line. He added that the goal was to help 30% of the rural families in sub-Saharan Africa raise improved breeds of vaccinated chickens, up from the current 5%.
At the launch of the campaign in New York, Mr Gates said:
"These chickens are multiplying on an ongoing basis so there's no investment that has a return percentage anything like being able to breed chickens."